R/qtlcharts is an R package to create interactive charts for QTL data, for use with R/qtl. R/qtlcharts is written in R and CoffeeScript, making use of the JavaScript libraries D3, jQuery, and jQueryUI.

The aim of this guide is to explain the basic strategy of the package and the organization of the code, in the hope that others may wish to contribute to its development or to make use of different pieces of the software.

Basic layout of source

The source for the package is at GitHub. The devel branch contains the current development version, while the master branch contains the stable version.

R/qtlcharts uses htmlwidgets as the basic driver for the construction of interactive graphs: It creates an html file with links to the necessary resources and opens it in a browser.

JavaScript and CoffeeScript code are within the inst/htmlwidgets subdirectory. (When the package is installed, the contents of the inst directory are moved up one level, and there is no inst directory anymore.)

The JavaScript libraries are located in subdirectories of inst/htmlwidgets/lib. This includes D3, jQuery, and jQueryUI, as well as a set of basic graphic panels, d3panels.

The key functions that form the higher-level QTL visualizations are in inst/htmlwidgets/lib/qtlcharts. Each has an additional file within the inst/htmlwidgets directory with the code that htmlwidgets needs, as well as a YAML file that describes the set of resources needed for that chart.


R/qtlcharts is being developed in CoffeeScript rather than JavaScript, though the CoffeeScript code is translated to JavaScript and it is the JavaScript that is ultimately used.

The CoffeeScript code is not that far from JavaScript: the bulk of the code is basically not different. So why add this extra layer, with CoffeeScript? CoffeeScript is a nicer language and is more fun to code, and a number of things are easier or more compact than JavaScript.

For example, D3 code generally includes a lot of anonymous functions, like

blah.attr("x", function(d) { return xscale(d); });

In CoffeeScript, this becomes

blah.attr("x", (d) -> xscale(d))

Also, in dealing with missing values, or with default values, CoffeeScript has some features that make life easier. Here’s an example:

height = chartOpts?.height ? 450

The JavaScript version of this is cumbersome and ugly.

Basic strategy

For each chart there is an R function that reorganizes the data and call the htmlwidgets function createWidget(). This is connected to the file in inst/htmlwidgets that includes a call to the JavaScript function HTMLWidgets.widget(), which defines the initialization, rendering, and resizing of the interactive chart.

The code within HTMLWidgets.widget() will be relatively simple: set up the SVG to contain the plot, handle sizing, and then call the corresponding function in inst/htmlwidgets/lib/qtlcharts.

Those qtlcharts functions then call various d3panels functions (which create the individual panels) and sets up the interactions among the panels (for example, that clicking on a point in one panel causes a change to another panel).

Customization options

For each chart, there are numerous possible customizations that one may wish to apply. To simplify the maintenance of these options, the R function for each chart takes an argument chartOpts, that is a named list (in simple cases, a named vector will do). This is passed to the corresponding CoffeeScript function for the chart, which looks for specific named components. If a specific option (e.g., height or width) is named, the option is used in place of the default.

The allowable options are maintained in one place: the CoffeeScript code in which they are used. These need to be listed at the top of the file in a format like the following (taken from iplotCorr.coffee).

# chartOpts start
height = chartOpts?.height ? 450 # height of each panel in pixels
width = chartOpts?.width ? height # width of each panel in pixels
margin = chartOpts?.margin ? {left:70, top:40, right:5, bottom: 70, inner:5} # margins in pixels
corcolors = chartOpts?.corcolors ? ["darkslateblue", "white", "crimson"] # heat map colors (same length as `zlim`)
zlim = chartOpts?.zlim ? [-1, 0, 1] # z-axis limits
rectcolor = chartOpts?.rectcolor ? "#E6E6E6" # color of background rectangle
cortitle = chartOpts?.cortitle ? "" # title for heatmap panel
scattitle = chartOpts?.scattitle ? "" # title for scatterplot panel
scatcolors = chartOpts?.scatcolors ? null # vector of point colors for scatterplot
# chartOpts end

The name of the option used within the file (on the left) should match that used within the R code (e.g., height and chartOpts.height), and each line should end with a comment describing the option. This is so that a ruby script (grab_chartOpts.rb) can parse all of these options and create the chartOpts vignette, which provides a list of all possible options.

Some charts have multiple versions (e.g., iplotScanone with no effects, with confidence intervals, or with raw phenotype × genotype). The file multiversions.csv lists the chart name and a bit of Markdown code to describe the version. Also, the order of the charts in the chartOpts vignette is determined from the order in this file.


Data is ultimately pasted into the chart file as JSON. htmlwidgets handles the conversion from R objects to JSON, using the jsonlite package.

There are some occasional annoyances, particularly in ensuring that an object becomes a hash (i.e., associative array) or an array (i.e., vector or list), or that a single value becomes a scalar or an array of length 1. The function jsonlite::unbox() is useful for forcing a vector of length 1 to be a scalar.

The biggest annoyance, for me, is getting a hash where the values are all scalars. I end up having to do something like lapply(x, jsonlite::unbox). Here’s an example.

x <- c(a=1, b=2, c=3)
## [1,2,3]
y <- as.list(x)
## {"a":[1],"b":[2],"c":[3]}
z <- lapply(x, jsonlite::unbox)
## {"a":1,"b":2,"c":3}


R help files are created using Roxygen2: structured comments in the R code are converted to the R manual page format with the devtools::document function (see the Makefile).

For further information on Roxygen2, see Object documentation in Hadley Wickham’s R packages book, or the Roxygen2 vignettes, such as Getting started with Roxygen2 and Generating Rd files.


It is tricky to test graphics, and particularly interactive graphics. The basic panel functions in d3panels are tested separately; see its GitHub repository.

Tests of some of the R utility functions are in tests/testthat. We’re using the R package testthat.

We also generate a couple of tests for each of the higher-level chart functions: in the usual simple way (see tests/htmltest), and within the context of an R Markdown document (see tests/Rmdtest). These are executed with R CMD CHECK, but the results next to be inspected individually by eye.


The R/qtlcharts package as a whole is distributed under GPL-3 (GNU General Public License version 3).

R/qtlcharts incorporates the following other open source software components, which have their own license agreements.